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INTRODUCTION

The Solanaceae family of plants includes pepper. The pepper is often referred to as chili pepper in various parts of the world. Pepper is a major and commonly grown spice crop in Africa. In different forms, such as green chilies and powdered dry pepper, it is used as a spice in a variety of cuisines across the world. The pigment capsanthin gives pepper its red color, while capsaicin gives it a severe burning pungent sensation when swallowed. Peppers are known for their pungent flavor and vibrant color. Due to increasing use, pepper output in Africa is high.

The majority of people assume pepper comes from India, but it really comes from South Africa. Growing it in a controlled environment, like a greenhouse, would improve the quality and yield, but it can also be done in an open field.

HEALTHFULNESS OF PEPPER

Pepper’s health advantages include the following:

  • Iron and B-complex vitamins are abundant in peppers.
  • Prostate health is aided by pepper use.
  • Anti-cancer effects exist in peppers.
  • Peppers might help to reduce lung cancer risk.
  • Peppers are good for skin health because of the vitamin E they contain.
  • Peppers help to break down food.

THE MANY FORMATS OF PEPPER

Only a few examples are green cayenne, red cayenne, green ball, and east-west hybrid peppers.

PEPPER CULTURE REQUIRES A CERTAIN CLIMATE

Pepper is a tropical and subtropical crop by definition. Warm/hot, humid regions are ideal for growing it. It thrives at temperatures between 20 and 30 degrees Fahrenheit. Temperatures below 15°F may reduce production. The soil must maintain a stable moisture level during the blooming process in order to provide a good yield. Every year, the crop requires between 25 and 30 inches of rain. The crop will be harmed by flooding or severe rainfall.

PEPPER CULTIVATION REQUIREMENTS FOR SOIL

Pepper may be grown in a wide range of soil conditions. On the other hand, sandy—loam, clay loam, and loam soils are good for growing it. The soil should have plenty of organic materials. It’s drained and aerated to perfection. For pepper development, a soil pH of 5.5 to 6.8 is ideal. Peppers should not be grown on acidic soils since they are unsuited for them.

PEPPER LAND PREPAREMENT

The ground is prepared by three to four deep ploughings, followed by harrowing to achieve a good tilth level. Clods must be crushed after each plowing. Using a tractor blade, level the area when the soil has reached a fine tilth stage. Raised beds aid in water drainage and aeration during the rainy season. It is recommended that properly decomposed farmyard, such as cow dung (about 25 tonnes per hectare) or any other equivalent compost, be added to the soil during field preparation.

SOWING SEASON OF PEPPER CULTIVATION

If enough irrigation facilities are provided, pepper can be grown all year.

CULTIVATION OF PEPPER SEEDS AND SEED TREATMENT

Cultivar and soil type influence seed rate. On average, one to two kg of seed is required to cover one hectare of land. Treat the seeds before planting.

PEPPER CULTIVATION WITH MULCHING

Mulching is the most efficient method of controlling weeds, conserving soil moisture, and ensuring constant root growth. Mulching also helps to prevent soil erosion while also increasing soil fertility. A 5 tonne per hectare rice straw mulch would be enough to cover the pepper crop.

IN THE CULTIVATION OF PEPPER

The variety determines the pepper’s maturity. Usually. Pepper crop harvesting depends on the purpose and the market needs 60 to 65 days after blossoming. Green peppers may be harvested in immature, fully ripe, and red stages for fresh markets and canning. Crops should be harvested when they are completely ripe. Harvesting peppers may take months, and it should be done once a week or as needed by market need. When manufacturing dry pepper, it’s critical to maintain the ripened peppers’ red hue.

PEPPER CULTIVATION YIELD

Pepper crop yield is influenced by cultivar (variety), soil type, irrigation, and crop management strategies.

In pepper cultivation, hybrid commercial cultivars may provide the following yield.

  • Yield of dry peppers: 2 to 3 tonnes per hectare
  • Green pepper yields range from 10 to 15 tonnes per hectare.

A rainfed crop’s yield would be greater than an irrigated crop’s.

PEPPER COMMERCIALIZATION

On a weekly or demand basis, fresh green pepper will be provided to local markets.

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